UNITED NATIONS

Headquarters :- New York

Total members :- 193

FOUNDED ON  :- 24 Oct. 1945

Secretary General  :-  António Guterres

Foundational Treaty  :-  The charter of the United Nations

 Official Languages :- Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, Spanish

Objectives

  • Peacekeeping and security
  • Human rights
  • Economic development and humanitarian assistance
CHAPTER I of un charter :- PURPOSES AND PRINCIPLES
  1. To maintain international peace and security, and to that end: to take effective collective measures for the prevention and removal of threats to the peace, and for the suppression of acts of aggression or other breaches of the peace, and to bring about by peaceful means, and in conformity with the principles of justice and international law, adjustment or settlement of international disputes or situations which might lead to a breach of the peace;
  2. To develop friendly relations among nations based on respect for the principle of equal rights and self-determination of peoples, and to take other appropriate measures to strengthen universal peace;
  3. To achieve international co-operation in solving international problems of an economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian character, and in promoting and encouraging respect for human rights and for fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to race, sex, language, or religion; and
  4. To be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations in the attainment of these common ends.

 

HISTORY

12 June 1941  ||  An Inter-Allied Declaration

On the twelfth of that month the representatives of Great Britain, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and the Union of South Africa and of the exiled governments of Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Greece, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Yugoslavia and of General de Gaulle of France, met at the ancient St. James’ Palace and signed a declaration.

14 August 1941  ||  A Joint Declaration

Then, one afternoon, came the news that President Roosevelt and Prime Minister Churchill were in conference “somewhere at sea”—the same seas on which the desperate Battle of the Atlantic was being fought— and on August 14 the two leaders issued a joint declaration destined to be known in history as the Atlantic Charter.

1942: Declaration of The United Nations

On New Year’s Day 1942, President Roosevelt, Prime Minister Churchill, Maxim Litvinov, of the USSR, and T. V. Soong, of China, signed a short document which later came to be known as the United Nations Declaration. The next day the representatives of twenty-two other nations added their signatures. 

1945: The San Francisco Conference (Charter of the United Nations)

The Charter of the United Nations (also known as the UN Charter) of 1945 is the foundational treaty of the United Nations, The Charter was opened for signature on 26 June 1945 and was signed at the San Francisco War Memorial and Performing Arts Center in San Francisco, United States, on 26 June 1945, by 50 of the 51 original member countries (Poland, the other original member, which was not represented at the conference, signed it two months later). It entered into force on 24 October 1945, after being ratified by the original five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council—the Republic of China , the Provisional Government of the French Republic, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United Kingdom, and the United States

Main Organs

The main organs of the UN are the General Assembly, the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council, the Trusteeship Council, the International Court of Justice, and the UN Secretariat.  All were established in 1945 when the UN was founded.

General Assembly
  • The General Assembly is the main deliberative, policymaking and representative organ of the UN.
  • All 193 Member States of the UN are represented in the General Assembly,
  • it the only UN body with universal representation.  Each year, in September,
  • the full UN membership meets in the General Assembly Hall in New York for the annual General Assembly session
Security Council
  • The Security Council has primary responsibility, under the UN Charter, for the maintenance of international peace and security. 
  •  It has 15 Members (5 permanent and 10 non-permanent members). Each Member has one vote. Under the Charter, all Member States are obligated to comply with Council decisions.
  • The Security Council takes the lead in determining the existence of a threat to the peace or act of aggression.
  • It calls upon the parties to a dispute to settle it by peaceful means and recommends methods of adjustment or terms of settlement. In some cases, the Security Council can resort to imposing sanctions or even authorize the use of force to maintain or restore international peace and security. 
  •  The Security Council has a Presidency, which rotates, and changes, every month.
Subsidiary Organs Branch of UN Security Council
  • Counter-Terrorism Committee
  • Non-Proliferation Committee
  • Non-Proliferation Committee
    • Sanctions Committees
    • Sanctions Committees
  • Peacekeeping Operations and Political Missions
  • International Courts and Tribunals
  • Advisory committee

 

Economic and Social Council
  • The Economic and Social Council is the principal body for coordination, policy review, policy dialogue and recommendations on economic, social and environmental issues, as well as implementation of internationally agreed development goals.
  •  It has 54 Members, elected by the General Assembly for overlapping three-year terms.
  • It is the United Nations’ central platform for reflection, debate, and innovative thinking on sustainable development.
International Court of Justice
  • The International Court of Justice is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations.
  • It has headquarters in the Hague (Netherlands).
  • It is the only one of the six principal organs of the United Nations not located in New York (United States of America).
  • The Court’s role is to settle, in accordance with international law, legal disputes submitted to it by States and to give advisory opinions on legal questions referred to it by authorized United Nations organs and specialized agencies.

 

Secretariat
  • The Secretariat comprises the Secretary-General and tens of thousands of international UN staff members who carry out the day-to-day work of the UN as mandated by the General Assembly and the Organization’s other principal organs. 
  • The Secretary-General is chief administrative officer of the Organization, appointed by the General Assembly on the recommendation of the Security Council for a five-year, renewable term.
  • UN staff members are recruited internationally and locally, and work in duty stations and on peacekeeping missions all around the world

Funds, Programmes, Specialized Agencies and Others

The UN system, also known unofficially as the “UN family”, is made up of the UN itself and many affiliated programmes, funds, and specialized agencies, all with their own membership, leadership, and budget.  The programmes and funds are financed through voluntary rather than assessed contributions. The Specialized Agencies are independent international organizations funded by both voluntary and assessed contributions.

Funds and Programmes

  • United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)
  • United Nations Environment Programme  (UNEP)
  • United Nations Population Fund (UNFPF)
  •  United Nations Human Settlements Programme(UN-Habitat)
  • The United Nations Children’s Fund(UNICEF)
  • World Food Programme (WFP)

UN Specialized Agencies

  •  Food and Agriculture Organization  
  • International Civil Aviation Organization  
  • International Monetary Fund (IMF)
  • International Telecommunication Union   
  • United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)  
  • World Tourism Organization(UNWTO)  
  • World Health Organization (WHO)
  • World Bank


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