Ganges River System

GANGA

  • The Ganga river system is the largest river system in India.
  • The Ganga Originates from Gangotri glacier near Gaumukh in the Uttarkashi district of Uttrakhand. Here it is known as Bhagirathi.  
  • The Tehri Dam is the highest dam in India, constructed on Bhagirathi.
  • At Devpriyag, the Bhagirathi meets with the Alaknanda and from here it is called the Ganga.
  • The Alaknanda has its source in satopnath glacier above the Badrinath. The Vishnu Ganga and and Dhaula meet with it at Joshimatha or Vishnu Priyag.
  •  The Mandakani and the Kali Ganga meet with the Alaknanda at Rudhrapriyag.
  • Kedarnath temple is Located on the Garhwal Himalayan range near the Mandakini river
  • After entering West Bengal, the Ganga divides into two rivers: the Hooghly and the Padma River. The Hooghly, or Adi Ganga, flows through several districts of West Bengal and into the Bay of Bengal near Sagar Island. The other, the Padma, also flows into and through Bangladesh, and joins the Meghna river which ultimately empties into the Bay of Bengal
  • Padma is the another name of Ganga, in Bangladesh.
More about Ganga…
  • Major cities on the banks of the Ganga are  Rishikesh Haridwar, Farrukabad, kannauj, Kanpur, Priyagraj (Allahabad), Varanasi, Ballian, Patna etc. Kolkata is located on bank of the Hugali river .
  • Kumbh Mela is a mass Hindu pilgrimage in which Hindus gather at the Ganges River. The Ardh (half) Kumbh is celebrated every six years at Haridwar and Prayag, the Purna (complete) Kumbh takes place every twelve years  at four places
    1. Prayag (Allahabad),
    2. Haridwar,
    3. Ujjain,
    4. and Nashik.
  • The Maha (great) Kumbh Mela which comes after 12 ‘Purna Kumbh Melas’, or 144 years, is held at Prayag (Allahabad).
  • The freshwater Ganges river Dolphin is India’s national aquatic animal.
  • The Upper Ganges canal starts at the Bhimgoda Barrage near Har ki Pauri at Haridwar. Originally constructed from 1842 to 1854
  • The National Waterway 1 or NW-1 or Ganga-Bhagirathi-Hooghly river system runs from Haldia to Prayagraj.
  • World’s largest container shipping company Maersk Line moved 16 containers on it. The vessel MV RN Tagore was the first to  reach Varanasi. 
Upper terrain of the Ganga river

Major left bank tributaries of the Ganga are

The Ramganga,
  • Source – Dudhatoli range, Uttarakhand,
  • Merges with the Ganga Near Ibrahimpur, UP.
  • Jamrani multipurpose Dam is being built on The Gola river which is tributary of the Ramganga
The Gomati,
  • The Gomti, a monsoon- and groundwater-fed river, originates from Gomat Taal near Madho Tanda, Pilibhit and meets the Ganges near Saidpur, Kaithi, 27 kilometres  from Varanasi district.
  • Lucknow is on the banks of Gomati river.
The Ghaghara
  • It is a trans-boundary river originating from the Tibetan Plateau near Lake Manasarovar.
  • Merge with  Ganges at Revelganj in Bihar
  • Lower Ghaghara is also known as Sarayu river and Ayodhya is situated on its right bank.
The Gandak,
  • It is also known as the Narayani and the Gandaki
  • Originated from Nhubine Himal Glacier in the Mustang region of Nepal
  • It joins the Ganges near Patna just downstream of Hajipur at Sonpur
The Kosi,
  • the Koshi River is also known as Saptakoshi in Nepal
  • Sorrow of Bihar,” is a name given to this river.
  • The mahanad.  Originate at Darjeeling Hills.

Tributaries of the Ganga

Major right bank tributaries of the Ganga are

The Son

  • The Son originates near Amarkantak in Madhya Pradesh
  • Flowing east-northeast through Uttar Pradesh, Jharkhand and Bihar states to join the Ganges just west of Patna
  • The Bansagar Dam in Madhya Pradesh, Bansagar Dam project is a joint venture  between Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar Governments.
  • Its chief tributaries are the Rihand and the North Koel
  • Rihand Dam is called Govind Ballabh Pant Sagar and is India’s largest artificial lake located in Uttar Pradesh.
  • Furthermore, the Mandal Dam also know as Palamu dam is being built on The North Koel river.

The Yamuna

  • The Yamuna, the western most and the longest tributary of the Ganga, has its source in the Yamunotri glacier on the western slopes of Banderpunch range
  •  It joins the Ganga at Prayag (Allahabad).
  • The Chambal, the Sind, the Betwa and the Ken join it on its right bank which originate from the Peninsular plateau.
  • The Hindan, the Rind, the Sengar, the Varuna, etc. join it on its left bank.
  • At the Hathni Kund Barrage, its waters divert into two large canals: the Western Yamuna Canal flowing towards Haryana and the Eastern Yamuna Canal towards Uttar Pradesh
  • Agra Canal, built in 1874, which starts from the Okhla barrage beyond the Nizamuddin bridge, joining the Banganga river about 32 kilometres (20 mi) below Agra. During the dry summer season, the stretch above Agra resembles a minor stream.
  • Three multipurpose dams are being built in the upper terrain of the yamuna.
  • And, all of these are as National projects
  • Also the beneficiary states are Uttrakhand, Utterpradesh, Himachal, Hariyana, Rajasthan and NCT Delhi
S.No.Name of the DamRiverLocation
1Renukaju Dam Giri River Himanchal Pradesh
2Lakhwar Dam Yamuna River Uttrakhand
3Kalsi Dam Ton Uttrakhand / Himanchal
Ganges River System, Map

Chambal river

  • Firstly, note the ancient name of the Chambal – Charmanvati.
  • The Chambal rises in Janpav hills near Mhow in the Malwa plateau of Madhya Pradesh
  • Even more, it is a tributary of the Yamuna River
  • It joins the Yamuna near Etawah, Utterpradesh
  • And, the Chambal is famous for its badland topography called the Chambal ravines
  • National Chambal Sanctuary status –  extending from Keshoraipatan in Rajasthan to the Chambal-Yamuna confluence in Uttar Pradesh to provide full protection for the gravely endangered gharial .
Dams on Chambal
S.No. Name of the DamStateLocation
1Ghandhi Sagar Dam Madhya Pradesh Rajasthan – Madhya Pradesh
2Rana Pratap Sagar Dam Rajasthan Rawatbhata in Chittorgarh District
3Jawahar Sagar Dam Rajasthan Kota
Chambal , Ganges River System
CHAMBAL RAVINES

Categories: Geography

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